عنوان مقاله [English]
A Hadith reports the sunnah of the Prophet and Imam Ali (pbuh) and stands firm on strong and firm bases called sanad (chain of transmitters). Transmitting of hadiths with Isnad has been emphasized upon and advised by the Imams (pbuh). One of the ways to evaluate a hadith is to assess its Isnad and transmitters. Hence, a discipline called 'Ilm al-Rijāl has been established and tens of Rijāl works have been composed. Among the books on Rijāl, the book "Jāmi’ al-Ruwāt" has enjoyed a special position and status, and it possesses important and beneficial distinctions. Its reflective author with his academic struggle and twenty-year long effort has been able to bring about a transformation in the identification of transmitters and the procedure to critique Isnad, and [he has been able to] innovate a new method that has had no record among the predecessors. With this innovative method, he has been able to identify the problems of Isnad of the transmitters of the Four Shia Books of Hadith, and to achieve very important and valuable results in the identification of transmitters and chains of transmitters; among which are to identify the tasḥīf (a form of distortion in which the change of a word stems from the words, vocal or written oneness or likeness) of the names of transmitters, such as the Taṣḥīf of “Husayn” into “Hasan” and vice versa, to recognize the Taṣḥīf in wording of Tahdīth (expressions of tradition), such as the Taṣḥīf of ’an to ibn and vice versa, to differentiate between common transmitters, such as to distinguish Ahmad bin Muhammad which is a name that multiple transmitters share like Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa Ash’ari, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid Barqi and Ahmad ibn Muhmmad ibn Abi Nasr Bizanti, to recognize the synonyms of a transmitter and to homogenize multiple titles such as Thabit ibn Dinar, Thābit ibn Abi Șafiyyah, Abu Ḥamza Thumālī and al- Thumālī all of whom are one person, to recognize ta’liq in chains of transmitter (a missing word or phrase in the beginning of a Isnad) and to recognize missing elements in it. This article mentions and explains the new methodology and the innovative procedure of Muhaqqiq Ardabīlī and the results achieved.